BOOK REVIEW: ‘Air Battle of Malta: Aircraft Crashes and Crash Sites 1940-1942’

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Reviewer: Michael Keith

Title:  Air Battle of Malta: Aircraft Crashes and Crash Sites 1940-1942

Author: Anthony Rogers

Total Number of Printed Pages: 220

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent) 8

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Before the advent of nuclear weapons negated its importance and relevance, the small Mediterranean island of Malta was of vital military importance to whomever would exercise military control over the eastern Mediterranean Sea.  Because whomever controlled Malta controlled the region, it was frequently fought-over by prevailing and would-be empires. The last (and arguably the most fierce) of these conflicts occurred during World War II. Within that conflict Malta was the centre of concerted attacks between Italian and German forces. These attacks were almost exclusively from the air, and Great Britain, Malta’s ‘owner’ responded in kind. The results were aerial combats between the opposing forces; combats which invariably resulted in the destruction of the aircraft involved. Many of these landed or crash-landed on Malta itself or in the sea nearby. This volume records the locations of such sites (where known) and the combats in which they were involved.

The main part of this book consists of 10 Chapters. Each of these records the air combats that occurred over a specific period. Although some of these are for a single month, the majority cover a time frame of between two and eight months. Within the volume the author ‘…Describes the circumstances of some 200 final sorties flown during 1940-42 by those who served in and with the Royal Air Force and also by their opponents…’. The result is an impressive list which is both well-researched and readable.. A two page Contents section is followed in turn by an Illustrations section which is also two pages in length. This reproduces the captions of the images which appear within a 16-page photographic section placed in the centre of the book. Curiously, the Illustrations section is actually titled List of Illustrations on the Contents page, An Acknowledgements section then thanks those who contributed to the book and is in turn followed by the Introduction. While this section provides an overview to the volume’s content it also details both the author’s relationship with Malta and the current (2017) state of aviation-related preservation efforts on the island. The 10 Chapters which comprise the main body of the book then follow. Five Appendices appear behind the Chapters. These cover such topics as aircraft losses (in which the losses are presented in a Table format numerically-keyed to maps placed at the front of that Appendix); the abbreviations used within the book and the equivalent ranks of the combatant air arms.

Within each Chapter, the individual dates on which combat occurred appear as highlighted subsections. These contain details relating to that day’s events and their outcomes. Endnotes are used to provide additional information. These are numeric in format and sequential within each chapter. The appropriate citations appear in a separate Notes section following the Appendices. A Bibliography then lists the resources which contributed to the volume. The final section of the book consists of two Indexes. These are titled an Index of Personnel and an Index of Places respectively and relate directly to Malta itself. There is however no ‘General’ Index to cover such things as convoys, warships, army units etc. As a result, readers seeking such information are forced to search through the volume with no certainty of finding what they are seeking. The lack of such a section limits the volume’s usefulness to a wider audience. Within the volume itself, an apparent printing fault has meant that the page numbers between pages 133 and 191 of have been omitted, while page 211 suffers the same fate. Curiously however, the ‘omitted’ numbers appear alongside entries in both the Index of Personnel and the Index of Places. Five Maps are provided, but instead of being listed on the Contents page, they have been placed within and under the Illustrations section. A ‘technical’ section providing the specifications of the aircraft involved would have been useful to enable comparisons to be made between the equipment used by each combatant air arm.

As already noted, this is a well-researched and readable volume. It is likely to appeal to those with a general interest in WW II and those with a particular interest in military operations in the Mediterranean section theatre of that conflict. Aviation enthusiasts with a particular interest in the Battle of Malta are likely to find it of interest, while the photographs could be useful to aero-modellers.

This reviewer found this volume is a pleasure to read, It is a credit to the author’s penmanship, and it will probably become an ‘authoritative’ text on its subject. However, the absence of a ‘General’ Index and the small ‘detail’ errors concerning page numbers etc. have served to both reduce its value and limit its potential audience.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent, I have given it an 8. It should have been higher.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘Air Battle of Malta: Aircraft Crashes and Crash Sites 1940-1942’

Book Review: ‘The Spitfire: An Icon of the Skies’

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Reviewer:  Michael Keith

Title: The Spitfire: An Icon of the Skies

Editor: Philip Kaplan

No. of Pages: 234

Rating Scale (1: very poor, 10: excellent): 7

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According to its author, this volume: ‘…Looks at both the magnificent restoration of a AR213 [A specific aircraft], and at the Spitfire generally. It considers the mystique and charisma associated with the type, its principle designer R.J. Mitchell, the Spitfires of the pre-war years, the Spitfire in the battle of Britain, flying the aeroplane, the roles of the Spitfire in the Second World War, the amazing career of Alex Henshaw as Chief Test Pilot…the famous Rolls Royce Merlin engine…some of the motion picture and television performances of the Spitfire, and the phenomenal evolution of the warbird movement’. It is an excellent precis.

The volume consists of 12 Chapters. These cover the subjects described above and are accompanied by numerous monochrome and colour photographs. These are of both aircraft and individuals; all are relevant to the narrative. However, the image sources are not included with the images, but are instead listed in a separate Picture Credits section placed at the back of the book (of which more anon). Art works, along with images from both print media and philately, also appear, together with numerous personal reminiscences.

Regrettably, for this reviewer, this volume has several significant faults. Of these (and the most curious and serious; at least for this reviewer),  concerns the Contents page. On it there is a complete absence of reference to the volume’s ‘support services’. That the Acknowledgements. Bibliography, Picture Credits and Index sections appear within the book is easily verifiable, yet the Contents page contains no reference to their existence. Why this is so is unknown. In addition, an un-named (but two-page) section has been placed immediately after the Contents page. Exactly what it is, and why it has been placed where it is, is unexplained. To this reviewer, that section appears to be a ‘grab-bag’ of the material that will later appear within the body of the volume, but in the absence of a title, its function is uncertain. Regrettably, the authority of the Index is also doubtful, with a random search for ‘Park, Keith within it indicating that an entry to Park Keith would be found on page 99. No such entry was found. Have other, similar, omissions occurred? There is no way to know. As previously-noted, this book contains numerous personal reminiscences and quotes from those personally involved with the aircraft. Regrettably, little effort has been made to indicate when one individual’s quotes end and another’s starts, or of their sources (whether published, personal documents, or conversations). Page 35 is but one example, with the absence of quotation marks and citations making it initially difficult for this reviewer to determine where the ‘Beurling’ section ended and the ‘Lacy’ one commenced. Similar examples appear elsewhere. Readers seeking further information about the origins of such quotes will also have no idea where to look as no citations are provided to indicate their sources. The author certainly uses the Acknowledgements section to thank those who helped him by providing ‘…Quoted and other material’.

However, this is a ‘blanket’ thanks and in the absence of specific sources for specific quotes it likely to be of little use to a researcher.  A list of the abbreviations used throughout the volume would also have been useful. No maps appear within the volume.

The volume can be considered a ‘Potted History’ of the Spitfire and its military and civilian service, with particular emphasis being placed on the restoration of AR213. On that basis it will probably appeal to Spitfire aficionados in particular and to aviation and war-bird enthusiasts in general. Aviation historians may find it worthy of their perusal, while ‘generalist’ military historians may also find it of interest. Pilots and ‘Aviation buffs’ of all persuasions may also find it worth a look. Aeromodellers specifically interested in the Spitfire (especially the early marks as exemplified by AR213) are also likely to find the colour images useful.

On a Rating Scale where 1: very poor, 10: excellent: I have given this volume a 7.

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Book Review: ‘The Spitfire: An Icon of the Skies’

BOOK REVIEW: ‘C-130 Hercules: A History’.

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BOOK REVIEW

Reviewer: Michael Keith

Title: C-130 Hercules: A History

Author: Martin Bowman

Total Number of Printed Pages: 320

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent) 6

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On the opening page of Chapter I of this volume, the author states ‘Everyone knows the Hercules – even those who are unaware of its C-130 military designation know exactly what it does, this bulky, squat but lovable aircraft with the reassuring face of a friendly seal pup and whaled tail’. It is a fair summation of both the aircraft and the book; the latter being about the many faces and uses of the former.

The volume consists of 12 Chapters, there being no Introduction prior to Chapter 1.Within these the reader is introduced to the personnel who flew (and still fly) the aeroplane. It should be noted however that many of the Chapters take the form of personal reminiscences that have been sourced from other publications; they are not original to this volume. Technical details relating to the C-130’s development, variants, and uses in both military and civilian roles are also provided. Where additional information is required, this is presented in the form of sequentially-numbered and chapter-specific end-notes, the relevant citations appearing at the end of each Chapter.  Three Appendices follow the Chapters. Their self-explanatory titles are: Commercial and Humanitarian Operators past and Present (Appendix I); World Military User Dictionary (Appendix II); and Models and Variants (Appendix III). A single-page Acknowledgments completes the book. Within it, the author thanks those who assisted him in writing the volume. Numerous colour and black and white photographs appear in the book, some being sourced, some not. Their existence is not however mentioned on the Contents page.  The single map that the book contains, refers to a specific series of events narrated within Chapter 3 (The Last flight of the ‘Stray Goose’). The volume contains no plans, 3-view drawings or diagrams relating to its subject. There is also no Bibliography, Glossary (To explain the myriad military acronyms that occur throughout the volume) or Index.

When requesting this volume for review, this reviewer had certain expectations of it. One of these was that he would be able to find specific locations, units and variants of the basic C-130 airframe quickly and easily through the use of an Index. In that expectation he was wrong; there is no Index. Perhaps spoiled by his experience with other books of a similar nature, he also expected to find at least a basic 3-view drawing of the aircraft. In this he was again wrong, Although regrettable, these failings could possibly have been overlooked. However, what could not be overlooked was the complete absence of any reference to either Australia or New Zealand in the World Military User Directory (Appendix II); this despite an entire chapter (Chapter 9 The Antipodean Hercules) being devoted to these two air arms!! The discovery of proof-reading errors was also not helpful, and created an overall impression of a ‘sloppy’ book, while raising doubts about the volume’s veracity and authority on its subject.

The previous details notwithstanding, this volume is likely to appeal to all and anyone who has been associated with the C-130 in whatever capacity, with Vietnam-era C-130 aircrew in particular likely to find some of the content nostalgic. Those with a more-general interest in the type may also find the volume worthy of their attention. The colour photographs may be of use to both aircraft and military modellers.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent, I have given this volume a 6.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘C-130 Hercules: A History’.

INKTOBER 2017: ‘Swift’.

Inktober is an annual international fun challenge for whomever cares to participate. The Inktober organisers post a list of numbered daily ideas for ‘inspiration’ for each day of the month of October, and respondents are then invited to post one original pen and ink piece per day, based on that ‘inspiration’ , on their favourite pen and ink site.

It’s fun and quite challenging, and I will be posting  some examples that I I have submitted for Inktober 2017

Inktober topic: ‘Swift’
#inktober#inktobwer2017

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‘Swift’ (Aka ;Down in the weeds’ ).

(Supermarine Swift FR.5 of  79 SQN RAF on low-level, high-speed reconnaissance mission).

Technical Details: Drawn with Staedtler 0.05.0.1 and 0.3 in black-in pens on white cartridge notebook paper of unknown weight.

Note: The image depicts my all-time favourite jet fighter aircraft (the Supermarine Swift) in its low-level Fighter-Reconnaissance (F.R.) tole at very low altitude while undertaking a photographic reconnaissance sortie . The title ‘Down in the weeds’ reflects the fact that these aircraft flew at very low altitudes (tree height or lower), while the enemy is way above (visible at top left) and, due to the Swift’s camouflage and speed, is unable to see what is going-on below.

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INKTOBER 2017: ‘Swift’.

BOOK REVIEW: ‘The Mau Mau Rebellion: The Emergency in Kenya 1952-1956’

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Reviewer: Michael Keith

Title: The Mau Mau Rebellion: The Emergency in Kenya 1952-1956

Author: Nick van der Bijl

Total Number of Printed Pages: 250

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent): 8

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The Mau Mau rebellion was a small, nasty conflict that occurred in Kenya (Africa) between 1952 and 1956. It was essentially a clash of cultures. There were two protagonists. One was a people-group who, after being denigrated and humiliated, had lost large amounts of hereditary land through no fault of their own. The second was a governing power which believed that it had absolute authority to do as it wished and was not about to negotiate with those it considered to be its inferiors. This volume narrates the story of the conflict that resulted.

Unlike other works on similar subjects, this volume focusses on ‘… The Regulars and young National Servicemen’, who participated in the conflict. The result is a book which ‘…Is a collation of information from published works, regimental periodicals, the internet and some interviews with and recollections of ‘those who were there’. The volume is a largely objective, eminently readable and well-researched work which gives an immediacy that is unusual. This reviewer found Chapters One (British East Africa) and Two (The Colonization of Kenya), particularly interesting.

A Preface and Acknowledgements section has been placed after the Contents page. Within it the author thanks those who contributed to the volume. It is in turn followed by a two-page Maps section An Introduction then provides an overview of Kenyan geology, fauna and native peoples. This is in turn followed by the 12 Chapters which form the bulk of the volume. A section titled Conclusion follows that section. It summarises what has gone before. Two Appendices are placed next, and are in turn followed by a Glossary. This provides interpretation for the numerous acronyms which occur within the book together with two indigenous words widely used during the conflict.  A  Bibliography then provides sources for the material used within the volume.  Although numerous quotes appear within the volume, there are no accompanying source citations. As a result there is no way of knowing from whence the quotes came. As they were presumably sourced from titles appearing within the Bibliography, for this reviewer this reduced the latter’s value for further research. The Bibliography is in turn followed by the Index. A well-captioned 16-page photographic section appears in the centre of the volume. There is however no reference to its existence on the Contents page.  Although this reviewer could find little to fault in this work, he does have reservations about the authority of the Index. This is occasioned by an entry on p.158 where it is stated that ‘…Four No.8 Squadron twin-boomed NFB-9s detached from Aden provided low-level …ground attack’. Despite a search of the Index under both Aircraft and Royal Air Force Units, no reference to either ‘8 Squadron’ or ‘NFB-9s’ (perhaps De Havilland Venom F.B.9’s?), was found. With two such errors appearing on a single page, it is reasonable to ask if other, similar, omissions have occurred? There is no way to know.  

The ‘difficulty’ with the Index notwithstanding, this is a well-written and researched volume that may be of interest to several different groups of readers.  Former residents and military personnel who were in Kenya at the time of the rebellion will no doubt find it both informative and nostalgic. Military historians interested in ‘brush fire’ conflicts and tactics could also find it useful, while the photographs may be of interest to military modellers and war-gamers. Those with an interest in the politics associated with ‘liberation’ conflicts may also find the narrative informative.

Due to the uncertainty of the Index, and on a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent. I have given this volume an 8.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘The Mau Mau Rebellion: The Emergency in Kenya 1952-1956’

BOOK REVIEW: ‘British Destroyer’s & Frigates: The Second World War And After’

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Reviewer: Michael Keith

Title: British Destroyer’s & Frigates: The Second World War And After

Author: Norman Friedman

Total Number of Pages:  352

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent: 7

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Naval vessel-types have a very distinct hierarchy. At the top are the aircraft carriers (the Queen Bees; if you will); at the bottom, the Worker Bees; the destroyers and the frigates; the vessels that (at least in the opinions of their crews) do the actual work. This is their story; specifically, it is the story of the development and evolution of the destroyers and frigates used by both the Royal Navy and the Commonwealth navies it is affiliated to.

The story is a complex one and in the course of its narrative the reader is introduced to the multitudinous issues which effect and contribute-towards warship design. The numerous non-naval influences which must also be considered (especially in regards to ‘matters political’), are also discussed.

Although the Contents list indicates the Introduction is the first section to appear after it, a single-page List Of Abbreviations holds that honour. There is however no reference to its existence on the Contents page. That detail notwithstanding, the Introduction provides a multi-page summation of the material that appears within the Chapters which follow. A single-column Acknowledgements subsection placed within this section thanks those who assisted with the volume’s creation. The Introduction is followed by the 15 Chapters which comprise the bulk of the volume. The Chapters narrate the development of the two vessel- types over the 1939-2006 period covered by this volume.  It should be noted however that, for purposes of continuity, the volume’s narrative actually commences before World War II. Within the individual Chapter, each page consists of two columns of print. Footnotes are used within each Chapter to provide additional information. These are numbered consecutively within each Chapter, with the citations (where used) appearing at the foot of  each column. Where necessary, subsections within an individual Chapter provide additional elaboration on a specific part of the larger narrative within that particular chapter. Their existence is not however acknowledged on the Contents page. A single-page Bibliography follows the final Chapter and is itself followed by an eight-page section titled Data Tables. This section contains specifications for the vessels referred to within the volume. The information is presented in columnar and tabulated form. Relevant notes appear at the end of each individual section. These are not however in Footnote format but rather occupy the width of the individual section. Abbreviations are used throughout the section. Of these, a small number also appear on the previously-mentioned List Of Abbreviations (in one instance [DCT] with a different meaning).  The majority are however, section-specific, and their meanings are listed in a column appearing at the head of the section, A List of Ships section follows. This provides construction and paying-off details (or, if not relevant, the vessel’s fate) of every destroyer or frigate constructed by British dockyards from 1936 onwards. It also uses abbreviations (albeit in a smaller quantity) and these are placed at the front of the section. An Index completes the volume.  This book contains numerous descriptively-captioned monochrome Photographs from a variety of sources, together with plans and profile drawings of individual vessels. Tables are used for comparative purposes where required. Concept paintings have been utilised where relevant to the narrative while photographs of armaments and electronic antennae are included where necessary.  There is no reference to the existence of any of these (photographs, tables etc.) on the Contents page, although the Index does state that ‘Page references in Italics refer to illustration captions’..

The volume is well-written, researched and eminently readable. It is likely to appeal a variety of readers and may well become a standard reference work on its subject. The potential readership could include both naval personnel, and those with a general interest in the Royal Navy.. Those with a more general interest in naval and maritime matters are also likely to find this volume of interest. ‘The many photographs and drawings are likely to be invaluable to both ship modellers and to marine artists with an interest in British naval vessels.

In this regard, and because of the likelihood of ‘high use’ by its purchasers, this reviewer did wonder if the volume should perhaps have been printed in a ‘hard cover’ format; if only to prolong its cover life.

For this reviewer, this volume is let down by the ‘small details. The result is a ‘Good’ book;  it could have been a ‘Great’ book.

On a Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent, I have given it a 7.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘British Destroyer’s & Frigates: The Second World War And After’

BOOK REVIEW: ‘British Warship Recognition, The Perkins Identification Albums, Volume 1: Capital Ships 1895-1939’

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Reviewer: Michael Keith

Title: British Warship Recognition, The Perkins Identification Albums, Volume 1: Capital Ships 1895-1939

Author: Richard Perkins

Total No. of Pages: 178

Colour Pages: 162

Rating Scale (1: very poor, 10: excellent): 9

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Although not generally given to using superlatives when describing a book, in this instance I  made an exception, words such as ‘Remarkable’ and ‘Impressive’ coming to mind on first inspection.

The work is all the more remarkable because it was originally created as one man’s reference work for his personal use; to act as an aide memoir to his collection of naval photographs. It was never intended for public viewing. That it survived much relocation over the years before being donated to the National Maritime Museum is something for which those interested in naval history in general and the Royal Navy in particular, should be thankful.

To quote from the work’s Introduction, the volume’s author decided to ‘…Document faithfully the appearance and alterations made to…many hundreds of British warships…’. Accomplishing this required the taking of numerous images of Royal Navy vessels, which in turn led to the creation of a photographic collection of considerable size. Recognition Manuals were created to detail the alterations that each ship underwent. The scale and accuracy of the drawings within these led to the author being eventually recognised as an authority on the ships of the Royal Navy, the illustrations being both a national treasure and a research tool of immense value.

The volume’s Publisher’s Note states that ‘The aim of this published edition is to replicate as faithfully as possible the experience of consulting the beautiful original…albums. To this end, each page has been reproduced at full size having been photographed at the highest possible resolution’. In the original album, illustrations were drawn on paper rectangles which were glued to a larger page of newsprint. Time has caused both types of paper to turn yellow and when placed on this book’s larger white pages, the result adds to the overall charm of the volume, while implying the ‘history’ which lurks within.

For ease of use, the author has grouped the vessels within this work into a series of subsections (Battleships, Battlecruisers and Pre-Dreadnought Battleships). He then proceeds to deal with each family of warships appearing within that subsection, then with individual members of that family. It is at this point that this work’s value becomes apparent and its creator’s dedication to his craft very evident. A pen and ink image depicts each vessel in profile, with water-colour paints being used to give depth and shade. Clear and legible hand-written details of the vessel’s naval career appear below each image.  Although most vessels are represented by a single profile, others are portrayed through the use of two to four yearly blocks. Doing so required the creation of more hand-drawn images – all to the same high standard.  Smaller ‘scrap-type’ illustrations notate any differences between individual vessels within a class and any modifications undergone by the specific vessel. These can typically include alterations made to armament, masts, funnels and searchlights. The modifications are colour-coded. The effect is astonishing, and it is possible to follow the progress and ‘evolution’ of a ship from its service entry, through its various refits to its final withdrawal.

As would be expected, the volume contains a Table of Contents, an Index and three of the author’s photographs, together with an Introduction by the Curator of Historic Photographs at the National Maritime Museum.

As can be seen from the title, this volume ends in 1939, and as a result, those seeking details of modifications and alterations that occurred during WWII may be disappointed. What is presented is the ‘peacetime’, pre-WWII Royal Navy, with all the well-known vessels (HMS Hood, Renown, Nelson etc.) being illustrated. Despite this possible limitation, the volume should still appeal to a wide variety of readers; ship-modellers, those with interests in or connections to the Royal Navy and to students of naval warfare. For such readers this volume could prove to be a valued and much-used resource.

The work is unique and, by virtue of its accuracy, authority, and the sheer volume of detail, fills a very important gap in British naval history. It well-deserves inspection.

On a Rating Scale (where 1 is very poor, 10: excellent), I would give this book a 9.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘British Warship Recognition, The Perkins Identification Albums, Volume 1: Capital Ships 1895-1939’