BOOK REVIEW: ‘The Hindenburg Line’

117.

Reviewer: Michael  Keith

Title:  The Hindenburg Line

Author:  Peter Oldham

Total Number of Pages: 208

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent): 7

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A note on the rear cover of this volume states that this book forms part of a series titled Battleground Europe and is ‘…Designed for both the battlefield visitor and the armchair traveller’. It provides ‘Extensive guidance on how to make the most of [a] battlefield visit and describes ‘The historical significance of each site…in detail with the aid of maps and photographs’.  In this volume specifically, ‘Peter Oldham [the book’s author] looks at the area under discussion, dividing it into manageable sections and explains its importance’. It is an accurate precis of the volume.

Within the book itself, an Acknowledgments section placed immediately after the Contents page thanks those who have assisted in the preparation of the volume. This is followed in turn by a section titled Series Introduction; the title being self-explanatory. The volume’s actual Introduction follows. This summarises the book’s content while also reinforcing its purpose; namely to be ‘…A general guide to the region in which…British troops had some major trials and tribulations’. This is in turn followed by a section titled Advice to Travellers, the title of which is also self-explanatory.  The four Chapters which form the main part of the book now appear. Chapters 1-3 are devoted to military activities around, under and over the line of defence commonly known as the Hindenburg Line during the 1917-1918 period. Chapter 4 however is intended for the visitor. Titled Driving The Hindenburg Line and described as a ‘Sectioned guide to the location of the Hindenburg Line and actions and battles in every sector’, it consists of 20 subsections (titled A-T) each of which is devoted to a particular section of the Hindenburg line. It should however be noted that Sections S and T have been combined, the nominal Section T consisting of a single Map without any supporting, section-specific and clearly-defined text. Within each section, a standardised format is followed, and consists of two clearly-defined subsections. Within the first, several pages of historical notes are provided, together with at least one contemporary area-specific map and photographs of various military fortifications, both as they were when in military use and as they currently appear. Within the section, bracketed numeric references direct the reader toward specific locations within the adjacent map. These numbers are however Volume rather than Chapter sequential. Noticeably, these Maps do not carry titles; it being evidently assumed that the reader will know to what they refer. Where appropriate, portraits of individuals mentioned within the adjacent narrative are provided. As with all images within the volume, these are monochrome in format.With the exception of that of that of Citation-winner Second Lieutenant Rambo on page 162, these are all Victoria Cross Winners. Where appropriate, additional subsections provide more detail concerning significant military operations within the specific area. The historical background thus defined, the second section (titled variously The Area Today or XX Area Today) describes what military-based remains can be seen within the area under discussion. As already noted, the volume contains both Maps and Photographs and in addition Plans and Diagrams also appear within its pages. However, neither the Contents nor Index sections carry references to the existence of any of these items.  While informatively captioned, no source-related information is provided. Where necessary, additional information is provided through end-note citations. These are volume-sequential, with the citations themselves appearing in a References section placed towards the rear of the volume. A small section titled Further Reading follows Chapter 4’s Section S/T and is in turn followed by the previously-mentioned References section. The book’s Index follows; it is the volume’s last section.

Although this volume is well-written and researched, for this this reviewer it was let down by its Index. Random searching for Index entries for (for example), Canal du Nord Line (page 94); Francilly-Selency (page 78) and Battle Nomenclature Committee (page 142) found nothing, while that for  Mt Metier, although indicating that pages 79 and 83 contained the necessary information, omitted an entry on page 80. Why this should be is unknown, but when combined with the previously-mentioned omitted entries (and others of a similar nature) did nothing to engender confidence in the Index’s authority or veracity. The lack of a large-scale general-ordnance map of France was also unfortunate as without it, it is difficult to determine the Hindenburg Line’s geographical relationship with the rest of France.

Due to its nature, this volume may appeal to a variety of readers. Military Historians and readers with an interest In World War I may find it of interest. The ‘military’ images may also be of interest to military modellers, while wargamers with an interest in World War I may find the fortification details both useful and informative.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent, I have given this volume a 7.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘The Hindenburg Line’

BOOK REVIEW: ‘Uncommon Valour: The Story of the Victoria Cross’

115. UNCOMMON VALOUR (VC)

Reviewer: Michael Keith

Title: Uncommon Valour: The Story of the Victoria Cross

Author: Granville Allen Mawer

Total Number of Printed Pages: 282

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent): 6

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When writing in this volume’s Introduction, the author makes the following observations: ‘…The VC [Victoria Cross] is the ultimate bravery award…’ and that ‘This book sets out to not only examine individual deeds with a view to understanding them, but to also align them collectively with the expectations of those who instituted the decoration and those who administered it thereafter’. As a precis of the book’s intent it cannot be bettered.

Within the volume, an Acknowledgments section is placed immediately after the Contents pages. Within this the author pays tribute to those who assisted him in book’s creation. A list of Illustrations follows. The title is self-explanatory. Within the book the author has used a variety of graphs to provide visualisation of statistics relating to the awarding of the Decoration. These are listed as a subsection (titled Figures) within the list of Illustrations section. The 27 Chapters which form the bulk of the book now appear. Within these the reader is led from the ‘Cross’s origins to the Twenty-first Century, With the exception of the book’s final Chapter (Chapter 27; Rules and Exceptions) each Chapter within it presents a particular aspect of the larger narrative. To reinforce that aspect, the actions of VC recipients are presented as specific examples of that particular perspective. Curiously (and in an apparent attempt to assist readers in finding specific individuals sans Index), although the names of such individuals appear under each Chapter when the latter are listed on the Contents page, the self-same names are not placed at the head of the individual Chapters within the volume itself. Why this should be so is unknown. The previously-mentioned Chapter 27 focusses both on military protocols in respect of the award and on efforts made to have deserving individuals added to the list of recipients.  Three Appendices follow Chapter 27. Appendix 1 (The 1856 Victoria Cross Warrant) reproduces the ‘Founding Document’ on which the award is based. The title of Appendix 2 (The Who, When, Where, What, Why and How of the Awards) is self-explanatory, with the information-concerned being presented in Table format. Within the table however, the recipient names are presented in a First name, Surname sequence instead of the more-usual Surname-first sequence. As result trawling through the tables to find a specific individual can be both tedious and time consuming.  By way of contrast, Appendix 3 (How I Won the Victoria Cross) is an Australian-sourced humorous recitation best described as being ‘A tale of unintended consequences’. Where necessary within the individual Chapters, additional information is provided through the use of End-notes, these being numerically-sequential and Chapter-specific.  The relevant citations appear in a designated Notes section placed after Appendix 3. The volume’s Bibliography now appears. It lists the printed sources used in its creation. The Bibliography is followed by the Index; the volume’s final section.  The book contains 49 Images that are ‘…Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons unless otherwise attributed’.  The source has resulted in a collection of pictures of varying quality, many excellent, but several seemingly from boys comics; those on pages 88, 118 and 173 being examples of the latter. There were several others. The volume contains numerous Quotes and while many carry supporting citations to verify their authenticity, others (such as those on pages 144 and 151 and 152 [for example]) do not. While wishing to believe that the latter are also authentic and accurate recitations of events, the absence of supporting citations does raise questions… The book contains no Maps.

For this reviewer poor proof-reading has served to reduce this book’s effectiveness and resultant usefulness. This is specifically evident in the Index where a lack of attention has served to destroy any pretentions of authority that that section (and, inter alia the entire book) might have had. The Index consists of 19 pages, numbered from 263 to 282. Random searching during the review process revealed that (for example) a written entry for Aaron, Arthur (incidentally the first entry in the Index itself; on page 263) could be found on page 266, and that one for Topham, Frederick (Index entry page 280) would be appearing on page 271; i.e. within the Index itself! These are but two of numerous similar examples. To find that one Index entry only leads to another Index entry raises serious doubts about what other ‘errors’ might exist. There is no way of knowing. It was also noted that at least one individual’s name (that of Moana-Nui-a-Kiwa Ngarimu) had been entered under M rather than his surname (Ngarimu) As the name is not ‘British’ this is perhaps understandable, although the name IS correctly given within the Appendix 2 table (Award No. 1238; page 238). Have other similar ‘mistakes’ been made? Again, there is no way to know.  In addition the Index is largely ‘People’-focussed, to the almost total exclusion of geographical locations or events. Notably (despite being active participants in the larger narrative and mentioned within the volume), Australia, New Zealand and Canada as geographical / political entities are not mentioned within the Index. When combined with the previously-noted issues with Images, Quotes, Maps and Award Tables the ‘Index-related’ difficulties serve to seriously-erode the volume’s usefulness as a serious work on its subject.

Although in this reviewer’s opinion the problems detailed above are of considerable magnitude, the volume is both well written and easy to read. Military Historians with a specific interest in the Victoria Cross may find it of interest, as could readers with a more ‘generalist’ interest in the British armed forces, and their awards for brave deeds. Readers seeking descriptions of ‘Feats of daring-do’ by ordinary individuals in unusual situations may also find it worth of their attention.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent I have given this volume a 6.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘Uncommon Valour: The Story of the Victoria Cross’

BOOK REVIEW; ‘The Last Days Of The High Seas Fleet: From Mutiny To Scapa Flow’

107.

Reviewer: Michael Keith

Title:  The Last Days Of The High Seas Fleet: From Mutiny To Scapa Flow

Author: Nicholas Jellicoe

Total Number of Pages: 351

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent): 9

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The possibility that a defeated enemy may have a final ‘victory’ even after surrendering would seem, at first glance, to be a ludicrous one, yet what if it actually occurred? This is the premise that this volume is based on; that what was, on first sight, a major ‘defeat’ was in fact a ‘victory’; in that it removed a substantial part of the defeated nation’s military hardware from the grasp of its erstwhile enemies.

This book recounts both the prior-events and aftermath of the mass, carefully planned and very deliberate sinking (scuttling) of the Imperial German Navy’s High Seas Fleet in Scapa Flow (Orkney, Scotland) on 21 June 1919. It is a very well-written, entertaining and thoroughly enjoyable book about a supposed ‘defeat’ which (it could be reasonably-argued), was in fact a ‘Victory’.

The volume opens with an extended Contents section, the Contents page itself being immediately-followed by additional pages titled List of Illustrations, Abbreviations and Rank Equivalency. While the titles of the first two of these are self-explanatory, the third concerns the similarities and differences between the two volume’s main protagonists: The (British) Royal Navy and the (German) Imperial Fleet. A subheading titled A note on ships’ name spelling within the section, clarifies the spellings used in respect of German naval vessels mentioned within the book. The Rank Equivalency section is followed by the book’s Foreword, which is in turn followed by both its Acknowledgements and Introduction sections; the former thanking those who assisted the author in its preparation, the latter providing background to what is to follow within the 13 Chapters forming the main part of the volume. These take the reader from the origins of the Imperial German Navy, to the Twenty-first Century (specifically 2019), and while so-doing provide in-depth and highly-detailed narratives about the events that form the basis for this volume; the mass sinking of the Imperial German Navy’s High Seas Fleet. Where necessary, Subsections within each Chapter provide additional information about specific aspects of the narrative. However (and in addition the latter), owever 9and (Hh within some Chapters, borders have been placed around certain blocks of text. These are item-specific and elaborate in detail on those items; The Salvage Men (pages 279-80), being but one example of this practice. Where relevant to the narrative, Tables have also been used to list both events and quantities. Chapter 13 (Scapa Flow in History and Today) is followed by a section that the Contents page states is titled Bibliography and Notes. However, according to its actual Title Page (on page 293), the section’s specific title should be Bibliography & SOURCES, yet even that is problematical, as unlike its compatriots on pages 297 and 299, on page 295 the page header merely carries the word  Bibliography. Why this should be is unknown. A section titled Appendices follows. The section is 25 pages long, and contains 10 subsections. These are numbered sequentially and cover a range of subjects. These range from lists of vessels sunk (Appendices 1-2), to President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points (Appendix 5) to Von Trotha’s 9 May Letter to Reuter (Appendix 10).  Whether the Appendices should have been lumped together within a single section or been treated as ‘Stand-alone’ items, could be debated. Within the volume, Endnotes are used to provide both information sources and, where necessary, additional details supra the main text. The associated citations are Volume rather than Chapter sequential, and appear within a designated Notes section placed after the Appendices. The Index follows; it is the volume’s final section. The book contains 36 informatively-captioned images. These cover a variety of subjects relevant to the narrative, are largely monochrome in format, and are placed in two separate sections. Curiously, two additional images appear on page 175, evidently placed there in support of the subsection relating to a specific vessel. Where known, the sources for these images accompanies the image caption. The volume contains numerous Quotes, and while many carry the necessary source citations, it was also noted that a large number were uncited. The reasons for this is unknown. The volume contains no Maps; a surprising omission.

This is undoubtedly an excellent book, but this reviewer found it to be let down by ‘the little things’; the small but important details.  Chief offender in this area was the Index, with random searching finding surprising omissions. Amongst these (for example) was New Zealand (the country). While the Index certainly carried a reference to New Zealand and indicated that these appeared on pages 27 and 86, investigation found that the reference was to the warship HMS New Zealand and not the country. Similar entries and omissions were found for both Australia and Canada, while entries for Naval Division and RNAS (both on page 120) were similarly noted as being missing. Why there should be entries for the Four Power Treaty on pages 241 and 246 but not 132 is also unknown. With such evident omissions it cannot be known what else might be missing, and as a result the authority and veracity of the Index is inevitably suspect. The lack of Maps was also unfortunate, while the ‘mislabelling’ of both the Bibliography & SOURCES section and a page header within it, did not engender confidence.

The ‘little things’ detailed above notwithstanding, this is an outstanding book of the sort that is difficult to put down. It is very well written and researched, is an easy read, and begs fair to become the Standard Reference Work on its subject. It is likely to have broad reader appeal and to be of interest to Naval and Military Historians and enthusiasts. Readers with an interest in World War I and the Royal Navy may also find it worthy of their attention, while warship modellers may find the images informative.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent, I have given this volume a 9.

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BOOK REVIEW; ‘The Last Days Of The High Seas Fleet: From Mutiny To Scapa Flow’

BOOK REVIEW: ‘The Roman Invasion of Britain: Archaeology verses History’

103. Roman britain

Reviewer: Michael  Keith

Title: The Roman Invasion of Britain: Archaeology verses History

Author: Birgitta Hoffmann

Total Number of Printed Pages: 222

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent): 8

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A statement on this volume’s Dust jacket explains its intent well. It notes that ‘The purpose of this book is to take what we think we know about the Roman Conquest of Britain from historical sources, and compare it with the archaeological evidence, which is often contradictory’. It is an accurate summary of what is to follow.

Within the book, a List of Illustrations is placed immediately after the Contents page; it’s function being self-evident. The section reproduces the captions and citations of the monochrome images contained in a 16-page section placed in the centre of the volume. It is in turn followed by a Preface. Within this, the author both provides background as to the book’s origins and acknowledges those who contributed towards its creation. An Introduction follows. This details the academic background to the study of Roman History in Great Britain. The 13 Chapters forming the main part of the volume now appear. With the exception of Chapter 1 (A Few Things to Consider When Reading Ancient Historians) the majority of these are directly-concerned with the Roman conquest and occupation of Britain. Chapter 1 (as its title implies) is instead both a dissertation-on and a guide-to the material likely to be encountered by both Historians and generalist readers, together with the pitfalls that should be expected when such an encounter occurs. The remaining Chapters (2-13) cover specific aspects of Roman Britain. Within each, the author presents both the contemporary versions of events, and, through the use of subsequent archaeological information, either confirms the accuracy of the ancient narrative, or, where this is not the case, a revised and more accurate account of what actually occurred. Where necessary, sub-sections within each Chapter provide greater detail about specific subjects. Two Appendices are placed after Chapter 13. Appendix 1 (Orosius on the Conquest of Britani under Claudius) is an English-language translation of a document originally written in by Josephus, a noted chronicler of the Roman Empire. Appendix 2 (Notitia Dignitatium) is a discussion on the accuracy of this controversial document. A Bibliography follows Appendix 2, and is in turn followed by the volume’s Index; its final section. As previously noted, the book contains a 16-page images section, yet several additional images appear within the body of the work itself. For unknown reasons their existence is not acknowledged within the already-mentioned List of Illustrations’. Although the book also contains several Chapter-specific Maps, no reference to their existence appears on either the Contents page or within the Index. There is also no large Ordnance-Survey-type map of the British Isles to both give context to the narrative and aid in the location of significant events and settlements. Despite the use of subject-specific terminology, the volume contains no Glossary. What (for example) is a dendro-date (Page 12)?  In the absence of a clear and concise explanation, the term is meaningless and one which an average reader cannot be expected to know the meaning of. This was but one example of a considerable number found in the course of the review process.

This volume is undoubtedly well-researched and written. However, this reviewer was left with the distinct impression that what has resulted is a university thesis masquerading as a book. That the author uses the APA reference style for citations instead of the more usual MHRA style reinforced that perception. It was also evident that the author presumed a certain level of reader-knowledge and as already noted, did not consider it necessary to include a Glossary of terms used for the benefit of the layman reader. The Index is also problematical, with random searching finding entries either omitted or incomplete; Portus Itius (page 18) being an example of the former, York (page 155) the latter; with Index entries for pages 115 and 123, but none for page 155.  Other, similar, examples were also found, while the previously-mentioned lack of an Ordnance Survey Map was unhelpful.

Although members of the general public may well find this dissertation about the Roman world in Great Britain of interest, the level of research and the language it contains means that its greatest users may be Teachers, Historians, Archaeologists and those with a specific interest in  the Roman Empire and ancient Britain.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent, I have given this volume an 8.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘The Roman Invasion of Britain: Archaeology verses History’

BOOK REVIEW: ‘All Things Georgian: Tales from the Long Eighteenth Century’

97. ALL THINGS GEORGIAN

Reviewer: Michael Keith

Title: All Things Georgian: Tales from the Long Eighteenth Century

Authors: Joanne Major, Sarah Murden

Total Number of Pages: 170

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent): 7

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When describing the contents of this volume, its Dustjacket notes that it is a ‘…Collection of twenty-five true tales‘…’In roughly chronological order, covering the reign of the four Georges, 1714-1830 and set within the framework of the main events of the era’. It also notes that within it, the reader will ‘Meet actresses, whores and high-born ladies, politicians, inventors, royalty and criminals…’ It is an accurate summary of what follows.

Within the book itself, an Acknowledgments section is placed immediately after the Contents page. As would be expected, it thanks those individuals and organisations who assisted the authors in the preparation of the volume. This is in turn followed by an Introduction. Within this, two sub-sections provide both historical background to the era and of the Hanoverian royal dynasty which so-dominated the United Kingdom during the time under discussion. A section titled Timeline of Events Relevant to the Long Eighteenth Century follows; its title is self-explanatory. The 25 Chapters which form the main part of the work now appear. As previously-noted these comprise 25 stories relating to the activities of various notorious and well-known individuals within Eighteenth Century Britain and Europe. It should be noted that of the 24 tales presented (Chapter 25 being a summary of the era) 19 could be described as ‘Female focussed’. The reasons for this are unknown. A section titled Notes and Sources follows Chapter 25. As indicated by its title, it is equivalent to a Bibliography. The final section of the volume is an oddity, and consists of three pages listing books written by the authors, together with accompanying reviews. The section is unashamedly self-promotional and whether it is appropriate for the volume is something that only the reader can decide. There is no Index. The volume is well illustrated with both monochrome and colour images including plans and other images relevant to the narrative. Where possible the individual being discussed within each Chapter, is also depicted. However, a lack of such images has meant that at times these are of the ‘supporting cast’ to the tale. Although the images are certainly captioned and carry the appropriate citations, for a large number, the captions are single-sentence in format and can best be described as being ‘adequate’. It should be noted that, in several instances, although there was no ‘cross-referencing’ between the two sections, (text and image) it appeared that the reader was expected to associate the image with the text they were reading. The volume contains numerous Quotes. However, these do not carry supporting citations and in the absence of the latter, the authenticity of said Quotes must inevitably be questioned, together with their value as a research tool.  The volume contains one Map. This is an outline of the British Isles, and carries the names of various locations that are apparently mentioned within the volume. It does not however have a formal title, leaving the reader to guess at its function and usefulness, while its existence does not rate a mention on the Contents page.

As previously-noted, the volume has several ‘mechanical’ shortcomings, including the lack of an Index, unsupported Quotes, an untitled Map and Captions which are, at best, ‘adequate’. These are not unexpected. However, when requesting this volume for review purposes, and on the basis of its title (All Things Georgian: Tales from the Long Eighteenth Century) this reviewer expected to find a social history of the period. To a limited degree that is what he received, with the qualification that such information was an adjunct to the narrative rather than its focus. He did not however expect to meet the ‘… Actresses, whores and high-born ladies, politicians, inventors, royalty and criminals’ previously mentioned, to the extent that the endless repletion of the activities of such individuals became monotonous and (eventually) boring. The writing and research was excellent, but the basic topic (humankind’s largely-sexual failings), when repeated over and over again, deprived the volume whatever literary charm it might have held.

Undoubtedly this volume will appeal to those with an interest of any kind in the lifestyles of the Eighteenth Century’s rich and famous. Social historians might also find it useful, while readers with an interest in the art and architecture of the era may also find it worthy of their perusal.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent, I have given this book a 7.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘All Things Georgian: Tales from the Long Eighteenth Century’

BOOK REVIEW: ‘The Analogue Revolution: Communication Technology 1901-1914’

92. Analogue Technology

Reviewer: Michael Keith

Title:  The Analogue Revolution: Communication Technology 1901-1914

Author: Simon Webb

Total Number of Pages: 158

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent): 7 ½

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In this volume’s Introduction, the author observes the ‘The roots of our modern Information Revolution are to be found in the Edwardian Era’. With that pronouncement made, he then proceeds to provide reasoned and well-considered argument to support his case, using the Twenty-first Century’s Digital Revolution as a reference point for what follows. The result is a well-written, well-researched, highly informative and eminently-readable volume

Within the volume, a List of Plates immediately behind the Contents page lists, in abbreviated form, the captions carried by the 20 images appearing within an eight page images’ section in the book’s centre. The ‘List, is in turn followed by an Introduction. Within this the author precis’ what is to follow within the 10 Chapters which form the bulk of the volume.  The Chapters take the reader from the Victorian-era to the start of World War I and, in Chapter 10, to The Enduring Legacy of the Analogue Revolution, in which he discusses the ‘The astonishing durability of the physical manifestations of the information technology perfected during the Edwardian period’ and the reasons why such machinery is still ‘earning its keep’ over a century after it was originally constructed. An Endword follows. In this the author considers the similarities and differences between the current Digital Age and its Edwardian predecessor, and presents his thoughts as to what the future might hold. A two-page Bibliography follows, and is in turn followed by the Index; the volume’s final section. As previously-noted there is a small (eight page), ‘images’ (Plates) section at the centre of the volume. In addition to the usual photographs, the images appearing within it include postcards, advertisements, plans and etchings. All are monochrome, informatively and clearly captioned and are alluded to within the volume when appropriate to the narrative.

As already noted, this volume is well-written, well-researched, highly-informative and eminently readable. For this reviewer however, it is let down by its Index. While reviewing a volume, this reviewer randomly looks in its Index for words which interest him. When reviewing this volume however, he found that, in many instances, the words being sought did not appear within the Index. While numerous examples could be presented, those found on page 52 will suffice.  With words such as Port Arthur, Alan Moorhead, St Petersburg, and Petrograd appearing on that page it would be reasonable to expect to find them in the Index. Such was not the case, while the omission of Frederick Lee (on page 57, and despite appearing in the same sentence as Edward Turner; his fellow patentee) is even more curious. The omissions were both widespread and random, to the extent that this reviewer eventually ceased to rely on the Index as a reliable source of information. He now has serious reservations about the Index’s authority and veracity. Unsourced Quotes have been used throughout the volume. In the absence of verifying citations, they have little research value and authority and, indeed, could well have been written by anyone.  How important such things might be will, of course, depend on the reader / purchaser’s requirements.

Due to the width of its research, and despite the ‘limitations’ previously described, this volume bids fair to become an authoritative work on its subject. As it combines both technology and social history, this volume is likely to appeal to Historians with an interest in either or both of these subjects, particularly in the context of Great Britain in the Nineteenth and early Twentieth Centuries.  Those with a specific interest in the invention and use of such things as Cinema, the Telephone, Radio /Wireless etc. may also find the volume of interest, while due to its easy-to-read style layman-readers wishing to learn more about the origins of both ‘Digital’ and Analogue’ technologies, and their inter-relationships, may also find it worthy of their attention.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent, I have given this volume a 7 ½.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘The Analogue Revolution: Communication Technology 1901-1914’

BOOK REVIEW: ‘Castrum to Castle: Classical to Medieval Fortifications in the Lands of the Western Roman Empire’

88. castrum to castle

Reviewer: Michael  Keith Rimmer

Title:  Castrum to Castle: Classical to Medieval Fortifications in the Lands of the Western Roman Empire

Authors:  J.E. Kaufmann, H.W. Kaufmann,

Total Number of Pages: 278

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent): 9

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According to this volume’s dustjacket, this book is the ‘First volume in a two-part study of the history of fortification from the time of the Romans to the renaissance’. A statement appearing on page viii further-defines its intent. This states that ‘This volume covers the history of the fortifications in the lands that were part of the Western Roman Empire and its successors from the first century to the fourteenth century. It concentrates mostly on England and France’. It also notes that ‘This work includes historical background associated with fortifications in addition to their descriptions’. It is a succinct and accurate description of what is to follow.

Within the book, a two-page Preface placed after the Contents page clarifies and defines the various eras (Dark Ages, Middle Ages etc.) which appear within it. This is followed by a two-paragraph Acknowledgements section which thanks those individuals and orgnisations which contributed to the work. The eight Chapters which form the main part of the volume then follow. These are arranged in sequence and follow the development of the ‘castle’-type structure from Roman times to the Fifteenth Century.  Each Chapter is subdivided into Subsections, and, where necessary, (and in support of the larger narrative), into even smaller sections within the individual Subsections. Within the smaller sections, the text will sometimes appear within a green-coloured rectangle. The volume contains no reference to the practice, but it would appear that it has been adopted to highlight information considered important by the authors. A Conclusion placed after Chapter 8 (From Wales to Italy-Twelfth to Fifteenth Centuries) act as a summary for what has gone before. The content of this work’s companion volume is also summarised. An Appendix follows. The title (Table of Monarchs), is self-explanatory in both content and format, and covers the period 1000-1555. Throughout the volume additional information is provided through the use of End-notes. These are Chapter-specific and sequentially-numbered within that Chapter. The relevant citations appear within a designated Notes section placed after the Appendix. The volume’s Glossary and  Bibliography sections follow, together-with an Index; the latter being the final section within the work.  The volume contains numerous monochrome and colour photographs, together with plans, maps, tables, half-tone drawings and paraphernalia relevant to the narrative.Although these are informatively captioned, only some indicate their sources, the origins of the majority being omitted. Although the Index states ‘Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations’, the Contents pages carry no references to their existence.

When reviewing this volume, this reviewer found the Index to be somewhat problematic.  While randomly searching for ‘entries of interest’ within that section, entries were noted as being either absent or with page numbers omitted. An Index-search on page 53 (for example) for both Birdoswald and King Arthur found no entries, while it was noted that Chester, although accorded an Index entry and three page numbers, did not include a reference to its existence on page 53. As this was a random sample on a single page, by implication other entries are also likely to have been omitted. How many, and where, cannot, of course, be known, but the mere fact that these ommissions have been found causes doubt and the authority and veracity of the Index is inevitably questioned. A small number of spelling mistakes was also noted.

The matter of the Index notwithstanding (and due to the comprehensiveness of its coverage), this volume bids fair to becoming a ‘Standard Reference Work’ on its subject. The quality of its research is such that it is likely to be of interest to scholars in a variety of fields, while equally, a ‘layman’ reader with an interest in ‘Castles’ and ‘Things Medieval’, may well find it worthy of attention. War gamers and military modellers may also find its content of interest.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent, I have given this volume a 9.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘Castrum to Castle: Classical to Medieval Fortifications in the Lands of the Western Roman Empire’