BOOK REVIEW: ‘The History Of Toy Soldiers: Over 600 Firms Covered’

105.

Reviewer: Michael Keith

Title: The History Of Toy Soldiers: Over 600 Firms Covered

Author: Luigi Toiati

Total Number of Printed Pages: 621

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent): 7

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When writing in this volume’s Introduction, the author observes that it ‘First and foremost aims at investigating why a given kind of [toy] soldier was born in a given country in a given period and in a social-cultural environment’. He also notes that ‘Through the pages of this book I would like to convey the joy in collecting – and playing with-toy soldiers’, with the subsequent qualification that (according to the volume’s Forward), ‘…His focus is…on figures already part of history’. It is an unusual summation.

Within the volume itself, a Preface is placed immediately behind the Contents pages. This is followed by the previously-mentioned and multi-page Introduction. Within this the author provides personal background to his passion for toy soldiers. An Acknowledgements section follows. In it the author thanks those (human, electronic, floral and architectural), who assisted him in the creation of this work. It is followed by the volume’s Forward. This summarises what is to follow; the 17 Chapters which form the main part of the volume. Of these, Chapters 1-16 are specifically toy soldier related, while as its title (Some Useful Reading) suggests, Chapter 17 is a list of subject-related text and electronic sources which a reader might find useful. Curiously, and although  dealing with individual aspects of the toy soldier ethos, the author has chosen to use the phrase Toy and Model Soldiers History and Gossip as a title page for the entire section. Although perhaps an unfortunate choice of words, it is an accurate description of what is to follow; a mix of personal reminiscences, philosophical thoughts, comments on manufacturers and their products and, where necessary, an historical (non-model) narrative to give background to what is being discussed. It is an unusual combination. It should also be noted that although Luigi Toiati claims authorship of the volume, articles by other authors also appear within it. Termed Cameos, they appear at the end of several Chapters and although multi-paged and of similar format to the Chapters themselves, are not numbered. Although the authors of these sections evidently have some expertise in the toy soldier field, the articles carry no biographical details to indicate what this may be or why they have been included within the volume. Within the Chapters themselves, subheadings provide additional information on specific subjects and aspects of the larger narrative. These are not however placed in any logical or sequential order. To use the nations listed in Chapter 8 [The bee and the toy soldier…] as but one example, the sequence is France, Germany, USA, Mexico, Argentina, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Belgium, Scandinavian Countries and Japan. Similar ‘discrepancies’ are also found within the ‘National’ subheadings themselves. Why this should be is not known. Notably, the Contents pages contain no indication of this situation, nor a listing of subsections within the individual Chapters. Where specific manufacturers are mentioned within such subsections, their names are highlighted.  While the volume doesn’t contain a dedicated Bibliography, per se’, end-of chapter Bibliographies do appear in several (but not all) of the Chapters. Although such sections list titles referred-to within their associated Chapters, magazines, although mentioned within the text, are not listed. The reasons for this omission are unknown. The volume’s final section (its Index) is placed after the previously-noted, Chapter 17.  Its Index of Makers title is self-explanatory. The book contains numerous illustrations in a variety of media, and in both monochrome and colour format. Captions, where given are minimal and item-specific and many images contain no source-citations. The Contents pages contain no reference to their existence. Numerous Quotes in a variety of languages (although with English translations) also appear. In the absence of supporting source-citations, their authenticity must inevitably be questioned.

For this reviewer, this volume was problematical in several areas. The Index lists only manufacturers, and by so-doing severely limits any usefulness it may have provided to a reader in respect of individuals, localities and events. A reader requiring such information is thus forced into a page-by-page search with no guarantee of success. Many will not bother. The previously-mentioned lack of any logical order with the individual Chapters only serves to compound the problem. There is however another difficulty; the fact that, for this reviewer at least, the volume cannot decide exactly what it is. The previously mentioned Toy and Model Soldiers History and Gossip phrase summarises the situation well. On one hand the volume is encyclopaedic in its coverage of its subject, yet conversely, it contains a large amount of extraneous material (the previously-mentioned reminiscences, philosophies etc.), which can best be described as being ‘gossip’, and of doubtful-value in a volume which has pretentions towards the authoritative. The latter was not unexpected but has resulted in a volume that is unable to make up its mind as to its intentions. Is it to be taken seriously as a definitive work on its subject, or…? It is neither fish nor fowl and suffers accordingly.

Despite the ‘Difficulties’ noted above, this book is undoubtedly a labour of love and written by an apparent expert in his field.  It is both encyclopaedic in function and specialised in its subject; a volume to ‘dip into’ rather than read in a conventional way. As a result, its likely-readership will be those with a specific interest in the subject. To such individuals the work may achieve ‘Standard Reference Work’ status. Its unusual subject may also have curiousity value to readers of a more generalist nature.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent, I have given this volume a 7.

It should have been far higher.

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Comments concerning this Review would be appreciated, Thank you.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘The History Of Toy Soldiers: Over 600 Firms Covered’

BOOK REVIEW: ‘The Roman Invasion of Britain: Archaeology verses History’

103. Roman britain

Reviewer: Michael  Keith

Title: The Roman Invasion of Britain: Archaeology verses History

Author: Birgitta Hoffmann

Total Number of Printed Pages: 222

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent): 8

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A statement on this volume’s Dust jacket explains its intent well. It notes that ‘The purpose of this book is to take what we think we know about the Roman Conquest of Britain from historical sources, and compare it with the archaeological evidence, which is often contradictory’. It is an accurate summary of what is to follow.

Within the book, a List of Illustrations is placed immediately after the Contents page; it’s function being self-evident. The section reproduces the captions and citations of the monochrome images contained in a 16-page section placed in the centre of the volume. It is in turn followed by a Preface. Within this, the author both provides background as to the book’s origins and acknowledges those who contributed towards its creation. An Introduction follows. This details the academic background to the study of Roman History in Great Britain. The 13 Chapters forming the main part of the volume now appear. With the exception of Chapter 1 (A Few Things to Consider When Reading Ancient Historians) the majority of these are directly-concerned with the Roman conquest and occupation of Britain. Chapter 1 (as its title implies) is instead both a dissertation-on and a guide-to the material likely to be encountered by both Historians and generalist readers, together with the pitfalls that should be expected when such an encounter occurs. The remaining Chapters (2-13) cover specific aspects of Roman Britain. Within each, the author presents both the contemporary versions of events, and, through the use of subsequent archaeological information, either confirms the accuracy of the ancient narrative, or, where this is not the case, a revised and more accurate account of what actually occurred. Where necessary, sub-sections within each Chapter provide greater detail about specific subjects. Two Appendices are placed after Chapter 13. Appendix 1 (Orosius on the Conquest of Britani under Claudius) is an English-language translation of a document originally written in by Josephus, a noted chronicler of the Roman Empire. Appendix 2 (Notitia Dignitatium) is a discussion on the accuracy of this controversial document. A Bibliography follows Appendix 2, and is in turn followed by the volume’s Index; its final section. As previously noted, the book contains a 16-page images section, yet several additional images appear within the body of the work itself. For unknown reasons their existence is not acknowledged within the already-mentioned List of Illustrations’. Although the book also contains several Chapter-specific Maps, no reference to their existence appears on either the Contents page or within the Index. There is also no large Ordnance-Survey-type map of the British Isles to both give context to the narrative and aid in the location of significant events and settlements. Despite the use of subject-specific terminology, the volume contains no Glossary. What (for example) is a dendro-date (Page 12)?  In the absence of a clear and concise explanation, the term is meaningless and one which an average reader cannot be expected to know the meaning of. This was but one example of a considerable number found in the course of the review process.

This volume is undoubtedly well-researched and written. However, this reviewer was left with the distinct impression that what has resulted is a university thesis masquerading as a book. That the author uses the APA reference style for citations instead of the more usual MHRA style reinforced that perception. It was also evident that the author presumed a certain level of reader-knowledge and as already noted, did not consider it necessary to include a Glossary of terms used for the benefit of the layman reader. The Index is also problematical, with random searching finding entries either omitted or incomplete; Portus Itius (page 18) being an example of the former, York (page 155) the latter; with Index entries for pages 115 and 123, but none for page 155.  Other, similar, examples were also found, while the previously-mentioned lack of an Ordnance Survey Map was unhelpful.

Although members of the general public may well find this dissertation about the Roman world in Great Britain of interest, the level of research and the language it contains means that its greatest users may be Teachers, Historians, Archaeologists and those with a specific interest in  the Roman Empire and ancient Britain.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent, I have given this volume an 8.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘The Roman Invasion of Britain: Archaeology verses History’

BOOK REVIEW: ‘Early Railways: A Guide for the Modeller’

102. MODELLING EARLY RAILWAYS

Reviewer: Michael Keith

Title: Early Railways: A Guide for the Modeller

Author: Peter Chatham, Stephen Weston

Total Number of Printed Pages: 120

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent): 9

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When writing in this volume’s Introduction, the author states that ‘The aim of this book is to promote and assist the modelling of that formative period of railway history from the very earliest steam railways back to the reign of King George III, up to about 1880 or so, a period which, for modellers in Britain at least, has been covered scarcely, if at all, in book form’. As a precis of what to follow, it is excellent.

Within the book itself, an Acknowledgements section placed behind the Contents page thanks those individuals and organisations which contributed to its content. This is followed by the previously-noted Introduction. The Introduction is in itself a multi-facetted beast, as aside from précising the contents of the volume, it also explains in great detail, such aspects of its subject as railway and social history, signalling, materials, sources and paints, the three latter written specifically with railway modellers in mind. Internet sources are given where appropriate. It is, in summary, very comprehensive. The six Chapters which comprise the main part of the volume now appear. As evidenced by its title (Mike Sharman – a Pioneer Modeller of Early Railways), the first pays tribute to a specific individual ‘… Who modelled the very early railways’ and ‘…Tells the story of how he set about modelling and promoting the early days [of railways]’. Included within this section are track plans and photographs of a variety of subjects relevant to the narrative. Curiously, the Chapter concludes with a ‘Mini Bibliography’ (titled Further Reading) which lists relevant literature specific to it subject. It is a detail not found anywhere else within the volume. Chapter 2 (Infrastructure) now appears and is followed in turn by three others. Their titles: Locomotives (Chapter 3), Carriages (Chapter 4) and Wagons (Chapter 5) are indicative of their content. As will be evident from its title (Layouts and Models), Chapter 6 is devoted to models of appropriate period locomotives and rolling stock and, by use of photographs shows how the previously-provided information can be recreated in model form in a variety of scales. The models and layouts are a delight and are accompanied by informative notes relevant to the specific items on display. A two-page Appendix follows. Titled Sources of supply for modellers, its content is self-evident, and is described as being a ‘…List of prominent manufacturers’ of period equipment from whom such items may be obtained. Notably (and in addition to the expected O and OO gauges), these include several who have equipment in the larger (‘Gauge 3’) and smaller (‘N’) gauges; thus widening the potential audience for this volume. A Bibliography follows.  While, as expected, this lists the printed texts alluded-to within the volume, its authors have added title-appropriate notes below each entry to assist modellers in search of specific information; an unusual and appreciated touch. A two-page Index completes the volume.  Although largely British-focussed, the book also contains references to both contemporary Continental European and American practices. It contains numerous monochrome and colour photographs and lithographs, as well as relevant locomotive, carriage and wagon plans. A layout diagram (that of one of Mike Sharman’s efforts) also appears, and where relevant to the narrative, technical diagrams showing the evolution of railway track are included. All are captioned and, with a small number of exceptions, contain appropriate citations indicating their sources.

While this reviewer could find little to fault with this volume, he did have issues with the book’s Index. Random searching found several entries within the book that were not supported by Index entries. Of these (and in view of its prominence on page 85 (Carriages), somewhat surprisingly), he could find no Index entries for PLM (Compagnie des Chermins de Fer de Paris `a Lyon et `a la Mediterranėe) under either PLM or the full company name. There were other, similar, ommissions; a small matter perhaps, but enough to raise questions about what else might also be missing.

That detail notwithstanding, it is very evident that this volume has been a labour of love for the authors. It is comprehensive, very informative and very well written. It is likely to appeal both to railway modellers who have a specific interest in its subject, and to those of a similar ilk who are just interested in ‘early’ railways, but with no inclination towards actually modelling the era. Transport Historians with an interest in early British, Continental and American railways may also find it of interest, while Social Historians seeking depictions and descriptions of early Nineteenth Century Britain may also find it worthy of their perusal.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent), I have given this volume a 9.

It is well deserved.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘Early Railways: A Guide for the Modeller’

BOOK REVIEW: ‘Uzbekistan: An Experience of Cultural Treasures to Colour’

101.UZBEKISTAN COLOURING BOOK (NOT REVIEWED YET 17 MAY 2019) 20190503_161427 (2)

Reviewer: Michael Keith

Title:  Uzbekistan: An Experience of Cultural Treasures to Colour

Author: Lola Karimova-Tillyaeva, Babour Ismailov, Binafsha Nodir, Davron Toshev

Total Number of Pages: 143

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent): 7

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According to its cover notes, the volume is intended to be ‘…A celebration of the arts and pictorial traditions of Uzbekistan’ doing-so with ‘Photographs of architectural works, murals, ceramics, tapestries and ornamental textiles’, and as part of this, ‘…The reader is given the opportunity to colour in their own drawings based on the beautiful photographs provided’. The result is simultaneously both a ‘Colouring book’ (albeit a very nice and well-presented one), yet equally a volume showcasing Uzbeki culture. It is an unusual treatment of an unusual subject.

Surprisingly, the volume contains no Contents page; the first page encountered being an untitled one which serves as an Introduction to its subject. This provides a broad historical background to the architecture and designs which are to follow. The first of five Sections which form the main part of the volume now appear. Although not defined as such (and un-numbered), these sections are analogous to Chapters. They cover the previously-mentioned subjects of architectural woks, murals, ceramics, tapestries and ornamental textiles with the unifying factor common to all, being patterns unique to Uzbekistan. These patterns mostly appear as full-page coloured photographs of unknown origin within each section, and in most instances are reproduced as line drawings on an adjacent page. It should be noted however, that, for unknown reasons, pages 54-65 do not contain reference images. Although some images contain a more detailed explanation about their subject (that of Mosaic Décor of Sherdor Madrasah, being one such example), the majority contain only a brief caption, this being placed alongside the appropriate photograph. Surprisingly (and although the intention is that the reader use coloured media such as crayons, pencils or paint to replicate the colours the coloured image contains), no guidance is given as to the colours that should be used, the volume’s complier’s evidently believing that the viewer can make this decision for themselves and ignoring the fact that there are numerous shades of a specific colour (‘Brown’ being but one example). Although a variety of Uzbecki words appear throughout the volume, it contains no interpretative Glossary. What (for example) is Ganch? (Section 2) The section itself offers no explanation and as the word does not appear in the previously-referenced Introduction, a reader can have no idea. Despite being located in a little-known part of the world, no maps are provided to assist the geographically-challenged reader.

The previously-noted ‘limitations’ notwithstanding, it is very evident that this book is a labour of love, yet its exact purpose is uncertain. The problem is that the volume is neither Fish nor Fowl. On one hand it is a celebration of Uzbeki culture and as such is beautifully presented, yet equally it is a Colouring Book, a genre that is at the lower end of the publishing market and more-frequently (and traditionally) associated with children rather than adults. What has resulted in this instance (at least for this reviewer) is a ‘compromise’ that is unable to decide its exact purpose, and is cheapened by this indecision. Were that that was not the case.

Aside from Uzbeki nationals who will purchase it for nostalgic reasons, it is possible that this volume will appeal to several different readerships. These could include ‘Orientalists’ who are interested in Middle Eastern cultures and their attributes, ‘Colourists’ who are seeking different subjects for their talents, and those who simply like beautiful images with a Middle Eastern theme. Artists with an interest in ‘Eastern’ themes and artworks may also find the images contained within this volume worthy of their attention.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent, I have given this volume a 7.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘Uzbekistan: An Experience of Cultural Treasures to Colour’

BOOK REVIEW: ‘Indoor Wildlife: Revealing the Creatures Inside Your Home’

100. INDOOR WILDLIFE

Reviewer:  Michael Keith

Title: Indoor Wildlife: Revealing the Creatures Inside Your Home

Author: Gerald E. Cheshire

No. of Pages: 85

Rating Scale (1: very poor, 10: excellent): 6

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In his Introduction to this volume, the author states that it ‘…Examines the environments inside our homes that offer sanctuary and somewhere to live for many animals and a few plants [that] find our homes suitable of habitation …’ It is an excellent precis of what is to follow, but as will be seen (for this reviewer at least), draws a very long bow.

The book opens with the aforementioned Introduction. Within this, the author details the many creature-desirable environments that the average domestic dwelling has to offer. He also notes that industrial and rural locations can, in many instances, offer similar possibilities to whichever organism cares to take advantage (‘exploit’) what is on offer.  The five unnumbered Sections (analogous to Chapters) that comprise the main part of the volume then follow, with each Section being devoted to s particular type of organism. Surprisingly, given the book’s title, these range from mammals to moulds, bacteria and even viruses (the ‘Very long bow’, previously alluded-to), these latter appearing under the broad classification of Flora. Regrettably, within each Section, the format and information provided follows no uniform pattern, and could at best be described as being ‘muddled’. The Section on Mammals (for example) carries no introductory subsection relating to its subject, while that of the Section titled Birds does-so, as do those on Invertebrates and Flora. This lack of uniformity is, at minimum, disconcerting. Subsections within each Section are used to describe a specific organism, but yet again, this practice is haphazard and seemingly random, the section Birds containing little more than single-sentence captioned photographs, while that of Flies (a subsection within the Invertebrates section) receives wide and detailed coverage. There are numerous, similar, examples. Regrettably, this ‘bias’, leaves the very distinct impression that the author’s primary interest (and this volume’s focus) concerns very small lifeforms of all varieties to the exclusion of almost everything else. Such text as is provided is supported in many instances by high quality colour photographs some sourced, some not, but again, this support does not extend to every section, with Simple Plants (a subsection of Flora) receiving no image, while Wood Rots (within the same section) has been the recipient of two. The existence of such images is not mentioned on the Contents page. No Index is provided, and the existence of the subsections within each larger Section is also not alluded to on the Contents page, a situation which this reviewer believes promotes unnecessary searching.

This reviewer found this volume frustrating. He expected to find a book containing detailed, image-supported descriptions of the creatures which inhabit the average domestic dwelling, and to a certain extent these criteria were met. He did not however expect to find descriptions of Environmental Viruses and Moulds , Pathogenic Moulds or Timber Rots as part of the narrative, nor a very evident bias towards ‘creepy-crawlies’, this latter to the exclusion of larger life-forms.  For him, the difference in coverage between Birds and Insects was very evident, emphasised by the volume’s previously-mentioned ‘Muddled’ format. The absence of an Index and the consequent need to make numerous (and at times fruitless) searches for a specific organism did not help.

So what to make of the result?

The previous comments notwithstanding, this volume is informative and well-illustrated, with the qualification that it leans heavily towards insects and their ilk. Readers seeking information about the very small creatures, moulds and viruses that co-exist with them within in their domestic environments are likely to find this book of considerable interest and very informative. However, readers seeking similar information about the avian lifeforms they encounter around their dwellings may be disappointed; the coverage of the latter being minimal.

On a Rating Scale where 1: very poor, 10: excellent: I have given this volume a 6.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘Indoor Wildlife: Revealing the Creatures Inside Your Home’

BOOK REVIEW ‘A History of the Royal Hospital Chelsea 1682-2017: The Warriors’ Repose’

 

99.CHELSEA PENSIONERS

Reviewer: Michael Keith

Title:  A History of the Royal Hospital Chelsea 1682-2017: The Warriors’ Repose

Author: Stephen Wynn, Tanya Wynn

Total Number of Pages: 230

Rating Scale (1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent):  7

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In a note on this volume’s dustjacket, the authors state that that the book ‘…Looks at the hospital’s beginnings…goes on to look at some of the characters who have been Pensioners at the hospital over the centuries as well as some of the individuals who have been buried in the hospital’s grounds. There is also an in depth look at the hospital’s governors [and] a look in some detail at a few of those who currently live and work in the hospital’. It is an excellent precis’.

The book opens with the fourth verse of Laurence Binyon’s well-known poem For the Fallen; the verse which begins: They shall not grow old… It is an appropriate Dedication. The Title and Contents pages follow in succession. An Introduction is next; while providing background to the book, it also summarises its content.  The 14 Chapters which comprise the bulk of the volume now appear. Chapters 1-4 introduce the reader to both the hospital itself and to noteworthy individuals and events which are associated with it. They may best be described as being the ‘Historical’ section of the volume. Where appropriate, subheadings within each Chapter detail both specific events and individuals. Chapters 5-to 12 may best be described as being ‘People’-focussed, the majority of their content being in the nature of biographical details for named individuals. Within this bloc, and where appropriate, specific individuals have been allocated a Chapter to themselves, with Baroness Margaret Thatcher (Chapter 6 Margaret Thatcher) being one of several individuals accorded this honour. The Royal Hospital Chelsea is a partly British Government-funded institution and Chapter 13 (Hansard Discussions) records the Hospital-related discussions which have occurred in the House of Commons since 1807. Such debates are recorded verbatim in Hansard (the official record of such discussions), with those records forming the basis of entries within the Chapter. Chapter 14 (Correspondence) contains both text and photographic copies of ‘…A few post cards and a letter connected to the Royal Hospital…’ The title is self-explanatory. A section titled Conclusion follows. This both summarises the volume and permits the authors to express their opinions on the institution’s present and possible future.  A biographical section titled About the Author follows. Again, its title is self-explanatory. Curiously, a 15-entry Subsection occurs within that section. Titled Sources, it is bibliographic in nature and function. A four-page Index completes the volume. It is not however the book’s final printed page, this honour being accorded to a final (albeit unnumbered) page placed behind page 229 on which  there is an advertisement for Pen and Sword-published titles which can be ordered from both the author and the Publisher. The volume contains 53 largely-unsourced monochrome images, defined as Figures. These are numbered sequentially and informatively captioned. Unsurprisingly, they are largely people-focussed but also include other items relevant to the narrative. For unknown reasons, the last image (on page 221) is not numbered. Although it would have helped readers to precisely-locate the Royal Hospital Chelsea the volume contains no Map.

Although this volume is well-written, for this reviewer it was badly let down by its Index, A random search within the Index for names and locations occurring within the volume found numerous examples where such names were omitted. These includes such entries as that for Michael Hurley (pages 204-205), and Patrick Johnson (page 146), while John Price, despite being the subject of a substantial entry on pages 202 and 203 was also absent from the Index. It was also noted that where some subjects were accorded an Index entry, these were incomplete; the Wren Chapel being but one such example: Although carrying Index entries for pages 18 and 20, that on page 86 was omitted. As other, similar, examples of the above were also found, the authority and veracity of the Index inevitably suffered, especially as the ommissions appear to be very numerous. There is no way to know the extent of the problem. The volume also contains numerous unsourced Quotes. In the absence of supporting citations, it is possible to suggest that these are imagined; there again being no way to know otherwise with certainty. The standard of proofreading was also disappointing, with several examples of incorrect entries being noted (page 85; 1918, not 2018), together with spelling mistakes. It was also noted that book titles, where appearing within the text, were not accorded acknowledgment through either a Footnote or an Endnote.

Although for this reviewer at least, it was let down by the previously-mentioned ‘difficulties’, it is very evident that this volume is a labour of love. In the absence of any other contemporary volumes on the Royal Hospital Chelsea, it is likely to become a standard work of reference for its subject. On that basis it may appeal to readers of all persuasions with an interest in British military history, while military historians with a similar interest may also find it worthy of their attention. Health and social historians and researchers may also find it worthy of perusal.

On a Rating Scale where 1: Very Poor, 10: Excellent, I have given this volume a 7.

It should have been much higher.

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BOOK REVIEW ‘A History of the Royal Hospital Chelsea 1682-2017: The Warriors’ Repose’

BOOK REVIEW: ‘Submarines of World War Two: Design, Development and Operations’

98. SUBMARINES

Reviewer:  Michael Keith

Title: Submarines of World War Two: Design, Development and Operations

Author: Erminio Bagnasco

No. of Pages: 288

Rating Scale (1: very poor, 10: excellent): 8 ¾

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In what is effectively an introduction to what is to follow, the author states that ‘This book deals with thee submarines of the navies engaged in the Second World War and includes those boats or classes which had been laid down, but which never entered service, or which had not been completed until after hostilities had ceased’. As a summary it is clear and concise.

This volume was originally published in Italy in 1977, a detail which has a bearing on the way that it is laid out. It opens with a multi-columned Contents page, which is in turn followed by a multi-functional section titled Data Key / Abbreviations/ Bibliography. This clarifies the volume’s purpose and contains both a Glossary and a list of the abbreviations used throughout the book. Although what is described as a Bibliography also appears within this section, this is a somewhat-loose term to classify what a note accompanying it describes as a ‘…List of books [what] may be of value to the reader who wishes to pursue specific subjects further’ rather than a list of titles and sources used when writing the book. By way of explanation the same note states that ‘In the original Italian edition of this book the author did not furnish a bibliography’. A Preface follows. This elaborates on the statement made at the start of this review, with the author further stating that he has ‘…Endeavoured to furnish the reader with…enough material to compare the technical and operational histories of all the submarines that took part in the war’. It is an ambitious aim. The book’s Introduction is next. While primarily a highly-detailed history of both submarines and submarine warfare from the time the craft was invented, to the end of World War II, a sub-section within it details post World War 2 developments in both submarines and submerged warfare. The main part of the volume follows.  This is arranged alphabetically, and consists of eight named ‘Sections’ (somewhat analogous to ‘Chapters’) of varying size, each devoted to submarine users. Seven of the Sections are devoted to ‘major’ submarine users with the title of the final section (The Lesser Powers) being self-explanatory. According to the author each Section / Chapter’ is divided in turn subdivided into two sections. ‘The first treats of naval policy, preparations for undersea warfare, types of wartime operations undertaken and the characteristics’. The second section…gives a detailed description of the various classes of submarines…lists the names of the boats, description, principal technical characteristics, a brief history of their wartime careers and the fate of each member of the class’. It is an excellent precis. In most (but not all) instances, at least one photograph of the class under discussion is provided. Where appropriate, a profile drawing of the vessel may also (but not always) be provided; in some instances these being expanded to a three-view format. While these are not to a constant scale, the scale to which they are drawn appears alongside the individual drawing. Where there are significant differences between individual vessels within the class, smaller ‘thumbnail’ illustrations may also appear together with any modifications undergone by the specific vessel. Typically, these may include alterations made to armament, or structures. In addition to the previously-mentioned specifications etc., additional information is provided through the use of tables, technical diagrams, plans, graphs, charts and ‘detail’ photographs of equipment. The volume contains numerous unsourced photographs of individual submarines. Although all are captioned, the amount of information presented varies in quantity from image to image. Although submarines operated in a wide range of areas during World War II, no Maps are provided to indicate where these might have been.  An Index placed at the rear of the book is its last section. This lists all vessels mentioned within the volume.

For this reviewer this volume was let down by the very narrow focus of its Index. As previously-noted this section ostensibly lists all the vessels that appear within this book. In fact it doesn’t, and only lists the location of the vessel’s Class / Specifications entry, not the locations of relevant text or photographs outside that section. To use the French submarine Surcouf as but one example of this practice, that vessel’s Index entry indicates it appears on page 53; and, there is indeed an entry and technical specification for Surcouf on that page. That there are in fact other entries for that vessel on pages 42, 43, 54 and 55 is not however mentioned. As this was but one of several examples noted while reviewing this volume, this practice would seem to be widespread. In addition, the section contains no references to individuals, theatres of operation or geographical locations; ommissions which serve to limit its usefulness. Should a reader seek an individual submarine they will find at least a reference to it. However, should they wish to know why it was constructed, who commanded it, where it served or what it did, they will search the Index in vain. This is unfortunate, as it considerably reduces the volume’s usefulness and value as a research tool, removing it from the ‘Work of Standard Reference’ category as a result.

There is no doubt that this volume is comprehensive in its coverage of its subject, and, despite the ‘limitations’ listed above,  is, indeed, encyclopaedic in its coverage. On that basis it is likely to have wide appeal to readers interested in submarines, submarine warfare and general ‘things naval’. Military historians interested in submarine operations may find it of use, while warship modellers and war-gamers with an interest in submarines may find it to be a useful reference source.

On a Rating Scale where 1: very poor, 10: excellent, I have given this volume an 8 ¾.

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BOOK REVIEW: ‘Submarines of World War Two: Design, Development and Operations’